The word "Pug" may come from the Latin “Pugnus” which means fist. This breed’s wrinkly face is sometimes likened to a clenched fist. Or, in nod to the pug’s often mischievous nature, its name may derive from the character "Puck" of A Midsummer Night's Dream. Some breed experts believe that Pugs were miniaturized from Mastiffs 2,400 years ago. Bred to adorn the laps of Chinese emperors during the Shang dynasty (1766-1122 BC), there they were known as “Foo”. Their popularity spread to Tibet, where they were mainly kept by monks, and then they travelled on to Japan and Europe. A Possible route into Europe was via the Dutch East India Company during the 16th century. In 1572, the Pug became the official dog of the House of Orange in Holland, when Pompey saved the life of his master, William, Prince of Orange. Upon hearing enemy soldiers, Pompey licked William’s face and barked loudly until the prince awoke. William grabbed Pompey and ran to safety. An effigy of Willliam and Pompey is carved over William'’ tomb in Delft Cathedral. Popularity of the Pug in England is attributed to Lady Willoughby of Greenthrope and Mr. Morrison of Walham Green. Lady Willoughby’s dogs were mostly silver-fawn color. Morrison’s were a golden color. Eventually the two became interbred and the distinction faded. The black color only appeared in 1877, when the English Lady Brassey returned from the Orient with a pair of black Pugs. Josephine, wife of Napoleon, owned a Pug named Fortune. Fortune slept at the foot of Josephine's bed each night. Fortune refused to leave at Napoleon’s request on the couple’s wedding night and bit him instead. King Henry II of France found his Pugs more entertaining than the court jesters. Pugs were a favorite subject of the 16th century artist Hogarth, who included his pet “Trump” in several works. Pugs are vulnerable when it comes to heat and cold. Most dogs have a long nose which they use to cool their bodies. Pugs do not have this, which means they don’t have a way of regulating their body temperature. This curly-tailed and flat-faced compact little dog with a great sense of humor is a perfect family companion, patient, good-natured and very tolerant with children, but they require a lot of attention and affection. A well-cared pug will live on average 12 to 15 years.